grafana loki query example

Return the largest of a series of integers: Signature: max(a interface{}, i interface{}) int64. Open positions, Check out the open source projects we support By clicking Accept all cookies, you agree Stack Exchange can store cookies on your device and disclose information in accordance with our Cookie Policy. *)" will extract from the following line: The unpack parser parses a JSON log line, unpacking all embedded labels from Promtails pack stage. At the moment it is not possible to run nested queries in Grafana variables for Loki e.g. Is it still in development? which streams will be included within the query results. The string type is the only one that can filter out a log line with a label __error__. For example, to calculate the qps of nginx and group it by pod. Of course, this means you need to have good label definition specifications on the log collection side. You can only alert on metric queries in Loki, yes. This means you can use the same operations (=,!=,=~,!~). *"} doesn't work for me. These links appear in the log details. error level logs will be written to stderr and the actual log messages are generated in JSON format and a new log message will be created every 500 milliseconds. Returns the number of seconds elapsed since January 1, 1970 UTC. Currently, we only support field access (my.field, my["field"]) and array access (list[0]), and any combination Content Discovery initiative April 13 update: Related questions using a Review our technical responses for the 2023 Developer Survey, Start and end parameters in query label_values (filename) loki, Collecting logs with fluentbit to loki - Indexing custom labels. --> Fixes #25205 **Special notes for your reviewer**: You can use a debug section to see what your fields extract and how the URL is interpolated. By default, a pattern expression is anchored at the start of the log line. Signature: date(fmt string, date interface{}) string. Note: By signing up, you agree to be emailed related product-level information. matches the regular expression regex against the label src_label. A log pipeline can be appended to a log stream selector to further process and filter log streams. Signature: trunc(count int,value string) string, Signature: substr(start int,end int,value string) string. Supports multiple numbers. (They can only contain ASCII letters and digits, as well as underscores and colons. Defines which cookies are forwarded to the data source. Click on "Add data source" and search for Loki and Click on it. Entries for which no matching entry in the right-hand vector can be found are not part of the result. VASPKIT and SeeK-path recommend different paths. and only include errors whose duration is above ten seconds. If an expression filters out a log line, the pipeline will stop processing the current log line and start processing the next log line. Between two vectors, a binary arithmetic operator is applied to each entry in the left-hand side vector and its matching element in the right-hand vector. Also you may be able to get QF to work by just adding either frontend_address or downstream_url to the config, but I don't personally deploy in monolithic mode, so I can't say for certain. You can combine the unpack and json parsers (or any other parsers) if the original embedded log line is of a specific format. Generally, you can assume regular mathematical convention with operators on the same precedence level being left-associative. The following binary arithmetic operators exist in Loki: Binary arithmetic operators are defined between two literals (scalars), a literal and a vector, and two vectors. When using |~ and ! String type work exactly like Prometheus label matchers use in log stream selector. If we wish to match only the contents of msg=", we can use the following expression to do so. For more information about LogQL, see LogQL. and do not contain the string out of order. The following query shows how you can reformat a log line to make it easier to read on screen. Query results are gathered by successive evaluation of parts of the query from left to right. Label filter expressions have support matching IP addresses. Grouping modifiers can only be used for comparison and arithmetic. Is there a way to use inferred values in a regex based LOKI query? 1-Local-Configuration-Example.yaml auth_enabled: false server: http_listen_port: 3100 common: ring: instance_addr: kvstore: store: inmemory replication_factor: 1 path_prefix: /tmp/loki schema_config: configs: - from: 2020-05-15 store: boltdb-shipper object_store: filesystem schema: v11 index: prefix: index_ period: 24h Loki supports functions to operate on data. In this video you will learn about- how to do basic queries in Grafana Loki- how to count the log lines and turn them to metrics- and finally how to set aler. For example if you collect a stream named host for all your incoming logs you'd query for: You should note that at present a stream selector is always required for querying logs. Loki defines Time Durations with the same syntax as Prometheus. Optionally, the log stream selector can be followed by a log pipeline. Sets the full link URL if the link is external, or a query for the target data source if the link is internal. What does 'They're at four. This means that the regex expression must match against the entire string, including newlines. The new field with the link shown in log details: You can define and configure the data source in YAML files as part of Grafanas provisioning system. \\\) (?P. The text template format used in | line_format and | label_format support the usage of functions. (?Pre)), with each submatch extracting a different tag. Keep log lines that have the substring error: Discard log lines that have the substring kafka.server:type=ReplicaManager: Keep log lines that contain a substring that starts with tsdb-ops and ends with io:2003. On the other hand, Grafana Loki can be run smoothly on a relatively small server. Querying and displaying log data from Loki is available via Explore and with the logs panel in visualizations. Signature: func(a interface{}, v interface{}) int64, Signature: func(i interface{}) float64. Placing them at the beginning improves the performance of the query, The right side can alternatively be a template string (double quoted or backtick), for example dst="{{.status}} {{.query}}", in which case the dst label value is replaced by the result of the text/template evaluation. such that they can be used by a label filter. The filter operators can be chained and will filter expressions in order, and the resulting log lines must satisfy each filter. Lokis strength lies in parallel querying, using filter expressions (label=text, |~ regex, ) to query the logs will be more efficient and fast. LogQL: Log query language LogQL is Grafana Loki's PromQL-inspired query language. All log streams that have both a label of app whose value is mysql They evaluate to another literal that is the result of the operator applied to both scalar operands (1 + 1 = 2). Unfortunately, I can't find an example / explanation which explains the procedure end-2-end (I have Grafana 7.4.0.) For instance, the pipeline | json will produce the following mapping: In case of errors, for instance if the line is not in the expected format, the log line wont be filtered but instead will get a new __error__ label added. The Loki data sources query editor helps you create log and metric queries that use Lokis query language, LogQL. The log line can be parsed with the following expression. Each line filter expression has a filter operator Obviously the mathematical operations in LogQL are oriented towards interval vector operations, and the supported binary operators in LogQL are as follows. # If we pass both trusted profile name and trusted profile ID it should be of # the same trusted profile. A log pipeline is a set of stage expressions that are chained together and applied to the selected log streams. However, the template form will preserve the referenced labels, such that dst="{{.src}}" results in both dst and src having the same value. IT admins should learn how the tool works, with log streams and a proprietary query language. Between a vector and a literal, the operator is applied to the value of every data sample in the vector, e.g. An example that mutates is the expression. You can find some examples of it here: Query Frontend | Grafana Loki documentation Do note that pull mode is generally recommended. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. In this example, log streams that have a label of app whose value is mysql and a label of name whose value is mysql-backup will be included in the query results. Extracted label keys are automatically sanitized by all parsers, to follow Prometheus metric name convention. while the results will be the same, Signature: count(regex string, src string) int. For example, you can link to your tracing backend directly from your logs, or link to a user profile page if the log line contains a corresponding userId. Use this function to repeat a string multiple times. Curly braces ({ and }) delimit the stream selector. How about saving the world? and !="out of order". Email for help. Q&A for work. LogQL queries can be annotated with the # character, e.g. defines the field name example. Signature: replace(old string, new string, src string) string. loki is the main server, responsible for storing logs and processing queries. Loki Ruler not sending alerts to alert Manager, How to visualize Loki JSON logs in Grafana. The filter should be placed after the stage that generated this error. The regular expression must contain a least one named sub-match (e.g (?Pre)), each sub-match will extract a different label. Pay special attention to operator order when chaining arithmetic operators. Literals can be any sequence of UTF-8 characters, including whitespace characters. vector1 or vector2 results in a vector that contains all original elements (label sets + values) of vector1 and additionally all elements of vector2 which do not have matching label sets in vector1. The indent function indents every line in a given string to the specified indent width. There are two types of LogQL queries: Log queries return the contents of log lines. further filters out log lines. Grafana Labs uses cookies for the normal operation of this website. Refer to Googles RE2 syntax for more information. . It returns the per-second rate of all non-timeout errors within the last minutes per host for the MySQL job and only includes errors whose duration is above ten seconds. Combined with parsers, metric queries can also be used to calculate metrics from a sample value within the log line, such as latency or request size. rev2023.4.21.43403. Other elements are dropped. We support multiple value types which are automatically inferred from the query input. Use {host=~ ".+"} That should work always. Use <_> at the beginning of the expression if you dont want to anchor the expression at the start. The same rules that apply for Prometheus Label Selectors apply for Grafana Loki log stream selectors. A Log Stream Selector determines how many logs will be searched for. The above example means that all log streams with the tag app and the value mysql and the tag name and the value mysql-backup will be included in the query results. Use this function to remove given characters from the front or back of a string. The log message format is shown below. In both cases, if the destination label doesnt exist, then a new one is created. This means that fewer tags lead to smaller indexes, which leads to better performance, so we should always think twice before adding tags. I've looked through documentation, and so far, I haven't found any such Loki query. Return the largest of a series of floats: Signature: maxf(a interface{}, i interface{}) float64. To filters those errors see the pipeline errors section. Since the logs of our sample application are in JSON form, we can use a JSON parser to parse the logs with the expression {app="fake-logger"} | json, as shown below. Note: If you use Grafana Cloud, you can request modifications to this feature by opening a support ticket in the Cloud Portal. LogQL supports a variety of value types that are automatically inferred from the query input. developers don't need start one query from scratch Not the answer you're looking for? For example, | json first_server="servers[0]", ua="request.headers[\"User-Agent\"] will extract from the following document: If an array or an object returned by an expression, it will be assigned to the label in json format. What happened? Now, take your cursor to the navigation drawer on the left, and hover it over the gear icon (second last one) and click on data sources. Instead of hard-coding details such as server, application, and sensor names in metric queries, you can use variables. Log queries A log query consists of two parts: log stream selector, and a search expression. Subtract numbers. If the conversion of the tag value fails, the log line is not filtered and a __error__ tag is added. They cannot start with a digit.). The parsers json, logfmt, pattern, regexp and unpack are currently supported. Every time series of the result vector must be uniquely identifiable. Add a link that uses the value of the field. $1 is replaced with the first matching subgroup, Metric queries can be used to calculate the rate of error messages or the top N log sources with the greatest quantity of logs over the last 3 hours. Implement a health check with a simple query: Double the rate of a a log streams entries: Get proportion of warning logs to error logs for the foo app. Additional helpful documentation, links, and articles: Scaling and securing your logs with Grafana Loki, Managing privacy in log data with Grafana Loki. The timezone value can be Local, UTC, or any of the IANA Time Zone database values, Signature: toDateInZone(fmt, zone, str string) time.Time. Sets the field name. specified json fields to labels. Is there a Loki query that returns all the logs? Return the smallest of a series of integers. You can interpolate the value from the field with the. Nested properties are flattened into label keys using the _ separator. of these in any level of nesting (my.list[0]["field"]). `label_values({compose_service=~$service, compose_project=~$project}, container_name)` **Which issue(s) this PR fixes**: - Automatically closes linked issue when the Pull Request is merged. A log pipeline can consist of the following parts. For example, use the json parser to extract the tags from the contents of the following files. ~, regular expressions with Golangs RE2 syntax can be used. =, =~, ! The bool modifier must not be provided. Grafana Labs uses cookies for the normal operation of this website. !=: not equal. Sorry, an error occurred. if a time series vector is multiplied by 2, the result is another vector in which every sample value of the original vector is multiplied by 2. While log line filter expressions can be placed anywhere in the pipeline, it is best to place them at the beginning to improve the performance of the query and only do further follow-up when a line matches. by level: Get the rate of HTTP GET requests to the /home endpoint for NGINX logs by region: Sorry, an error occurred. Multiple parsers can be used by a single log pipeline. To evaluate the logical and first, use parenthesis, as in this example: Label filter expressions are the only expression allowed after the unwrap expression. {container="query-frontend",namespace="loki-dev"} |= "metrics.go" | logfmt | duration > 10s and throughput_mb < 500, POST /api/prom/api/v1/query_range (200) 1.5s, - - [10/Jun/2021:09:14:29 +0000] "GET /api/plugins/versioncheck HTTP/1.1" 200 2 "-" "Go-http-client/2.0" "," "TLSv1.2" "US" "", - - <_> " <_>" <_> "" <_>, level=debug ts=2021-06-10T09:24:13.472094048Z caller=logging.go:66 traceID=0568b66ad2d9294c msg="POST /loki/api/v1/push (204) 16.652862ms", <_> msg=" () ", | duration >= 20ms or size == 20kb and method!~"2..", | duration >= 20ms or size == 20kb | method!~"2..", | duration >= 20ms or size == 20kb,method!~"2..", | duration >= 20ms or size == 20kb method!~"2..", | duration >= 20ms or method="GET" and size <= 20KB, | ((duration >= 20ms or method="GET") and size <= 20KB), | duration >= 20ms or (method="GET" and size <= 20KB), {container="frontend"} | logfmt | line_format "{{.query}} {{.duration}}", rate({filename="/var/log/nginx/access.log"}[5m])), count_over_time({filename="/var/log/message"} |~ "oom_kill_process" [5m])), sum(rate({filename="/var/log/nginx/access.log"}[5m])) by (pod), topk(5,sum(rate({filename="/var/log/nginx/access.log"}[5m])) by (pod))), sum(rate({app="foo", level="error"}[1m])) / sum(rate({app="foo"}[1m])), rate({app=~"foo|bar"}[1m]) and rate({app="bar"}[1m]), count_over_time({app="foo", level="error"}[5m]) > 10, {app="foo"} # anything that comes after will not be interpreted in your query, "This is a debug message. Loki indexes only the date, system name and a label for logs. character does not match newlines by default. Grafana Labs uses cookies for the normal operation of this website. Log stream selectors are written by wrapping key-value pairs in a pair of curly brackets, e.g. A minor scale definition: am I missing something? For example, to calculate the qps of nginx. {host=~ ". Install Grafana Loki with Docker or Docker Compose, 0003: Query fairness across users within tenants. If the original embedded log lines are in a specific format, you can use unpack in combination with a json parser (or other parser). as label_format; all expressions must be quoted. The without clause removes the listed labels from the resulting vector, keeping all others. The extracted tag keys are automatically formatted by the parser to follow the Prometheus metric name conventions (they can only contain ASCII letters and numbers, as well as underscores and colons, and cannot start with a number). For example, if we want to find the error rate inside a certain business log, we can calculate it as follows. Grafana Proxy deletes all other cookies. Returns a textual representation of the time value formatted according to the provided golang datetime layout. The last example will return Hello World. Downloads. This is specially useful when writing a regular expression which contains multiple backslashes that require escaping. $2 with the second etc. )\\) (?P. What were the most popular text editors for MS-DOS in the 1980s? To extract the method and the path, You can wrap predicates with parenthesis to force a different precedence. You can use and and or to concatenate multiple predicates that represent and and or binary operations, respectively. Could a subterranean river or aquifer generate enough continuous momentum to power a waterwheel for the purpose of producing electricity? In the official Loki Grafana documentation a pattern parser is mentioned: Grafana Labs LogQL LogQL: Log Query Language Loki comes with its own PromQL-inspired language for queries called LogQL. This means | label_format foo=bar,foo="new" is not allowed but you can use two expressions for the desired effect: | label_format foo=bar | label_format foo="new", Syntax: |drop name, other_name, some_name="some_value", The | drop expression will drop the given labels in the pipeline. Mulitply numbers. By clicking Post Your Answer, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. If start is < 0, this calls value[:end]. Well demo all the highlights of the major release: new and updated visualizations and themes, data source improvements, and Enterprise features. Step One Install Grafana on an EC2 Instance Launch a t2.micro EC2 instance. LogQL can be considered a distributed grep that However there are no additional resources on the parser online. and do not include the string timeout. An unnamed capture appears as <_>. For example, | logfmt host, fwd_ip="fwd" will extract the labels host and fwd from the following log line: The pattern parser allows the explicit extraction of fields from log lines by defining a pattern expression (| pattern ""). vector1 unless vector2 results in a vector consisting of the elements of vector1 for which there are no elements in vector2 with exactly matching label sets. You can specify one or more expressions in this way, the same What was the actual cockpit layout and crew of the Mi-24A? Line filter expressions are the fastest way to filter logs once the Use the following command to create the sample application. Sorry, an error occurred. For more information, refer to Add ad hoc filters. I used a Grafana transformation which seems to work Add field from calculation Binary operation Select the query and do + 0 I then hide the original query It would be easier if we could do this in the original query though 1 Like waterdrop01 September 28, 2021, 3:39pm #9 Agreed! Unify your data with Grafana plugins: Datadog, Splunk, MongoDB, and more. LogQL uses labels and operators for filtering. If a log line is filtered out by an expression, the pipeline will stop there and start processing the next line. LogQL also supports aggregation, which can be used to aggregate the elements within a single vector to produce a new vector with fewer elements. And you'll see this. We would like to use Loki to search logs up to 7 days and after that it . Also line_format supports mathematical functions, e.g. Install Grafana Loki with Docker or Docker Compose, 0003: Query fairness across users within tenants. The label filter Each key is a log label and each value is that labels value. Sets the HTTP protocol, IP, and port of your Loki instance, such as. Sorry, an error occurred. regexReplaceAllLiteral function returns a copy of the input string and replaces matches of the Regexp with the replacement string replacement. after the log stream selector or at end of the log pipeline. Note: By signing up, you agree to be emailed related product-level information. For example, Again, when results are not available, it enqueues the queries for downstream queriers to execute. Defines a regular expression to evaluate on the log message and capture part of it as the value of the new field. For example, to calculate the top 5 qps for nginx and group them by pod. The log stream selector determines which log streams should be included in your query results. For example, while the results are the same, the following query {job="mysql"} |= "error" |json | line_format "{{.err}}" will be faster than {job="mysql"} | json | line_format "{{.message}}" |= "error", Log line filter expressions are the fastest way to filter logs after log stream selectors . The results are grouped by parent path. The selector consists of one or more key-value pairs, where each key is a log tag and each value is the value of that tag. To avoid escaping the featured character, you can use single quotes instead of double quotes when quoting a string, for example \w+1 is the same as \w+. *"} You should note that at present a stream selector is always required for querying logs. The regex . Queries act as if they are a distributed grep to aggregate log sources. Note: By signing up, you agree to be emailed related product-level information. Grafana ships with built-in support for Loki, an open-source log aggregation system by Grafana Labs. Take the following image from Getting started with logging and Grafana Loki as an example, ingester 03 and 04 (the next ingester, clockwise in the . Why in the Sierpiski Triangle is this set being used as the example for the OSC and not a more "natural"? For example, the parser | regexp "(?P\\w+) (?P[\\w|/]+) \\((?P\\\d+?) Use dynamic tags with caution. New navigation. the query results. These links appear in the log details. It takes a comma-separated list of operations as arguments, and can perform multiple operations at once. A log stream is a unique source of log content, such as a file. See the blog: Parsing and formatting date/time in Go for more information. If an extracted label key name already exists in the original log stream, the extracted label key will be suffixed with the _extracted keyword to make the distinction between the two labels. This complete query example will give results that include the string error, Install Grafana Loki with Docker or Docker Compose, 0003: Query fairness across users within tenants. You can wrap predicates in parentheses to force a different priority from left to right. I have been running Grafana Loki on my hobby machine which only has 2 core and 2 GB memory without any hiccup for over 2 years now. 1479019165d4ab yeti rambler 14 oz cup holder adapter, what is a superimposed boundary,

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